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J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Sep;90(3):459-70. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0311145. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

17(R)-Resolvin D1 differentially regulates TLR4-mediated responses of primary human macrophages to purified LPS and live E. coli.

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  • 1Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Detection and clearance of bacterial infection require balanced effector and resolution signals to avoid chronic inflammation. Detection of GNB LPS by TLR4 on m induces inflammatory responses, contributing to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. LXs and Rvs are endogenous lipid mediators that enhance resolution of inflammation, and their actions on primary human m responses toward GNB are largely uncharacterized. Here, we report that LXA(4), LXB(4), and RvD1, tested at 0.1-1 μM, inhibited LPS-induced TNF production from primary human m, with ATL and 17(R)-RvD1, demonstrating potent inhibition at 0.1 μM. In addition, 17(R)-RvD1 inhibited LPS-induced primary human m production of IL-7, IL-12p70, GM-CSF, IL-8, CCL2, and MIP-1α without reducing that of IL-6 or IL-10. Remarkably, when stimulated with live Escherichia coli, m treated with 17(R)-RvD1 demonstrated increased TNF production and enhanced internalization and killing of the bacteria. 17(R)-RvD1-enhanced TNF, internalization, and killing were not evident for an lpxM mutant of E. coli expressing hypoacylated LPS with reduced inflammatory activity. Furthermore, 17(R)-RvD1-enhanced, E. coli-induced TNF production was evident in WT but not TLR4-deficient murine m. Thus, Rvs differentially modulate primary human m responses to E. coli in an LPS- and TLR4-dependent manner, such that this Rv could promote resolution of GNB/LPS-driven inflammation by reducing m proinflammatory responses to isolated LPS and increasing m responses important for clearance of infection.

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