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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jul;87(14):5273-7.

An insulin response element in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene binds a nuclear protein induced by insulin in cultured cells and by nutritional manipulations in vivo.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114.


Two independent cis-acting insulin response elements (IREs) in the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate: NAD+ oxidoreductase (phosphorylating), EC], designated IRE-A and IRE-B, are sufficient to direct insulin-inducible gene expression. Using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, a 4-fold increase in the amount of IRE-A DNA bound to nuclear proteins was detected when extracts isolated from insulin-stimulated differentiated 3T3-L1 cells or from the liver of rats refed a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet after a 72-hr fast were compared to control nuclear extracts. The points of contact between protein and IRE-A DNA may represent a sequence recognized by at least one class of insulin-sensitive transcription factor(s).

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