Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nanotechnology. 2011 Jul 15;22(28):285309. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/22/28/285309. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Large-area regular nanodomain patterning in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals.

Author information

  • 1Center for Integrated Science and Technology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.


Large-area ferroelectric nanodomain patterns, which are desirable for nonlinear optical applications, were generated in previously He-implanted lithium niobate crystals by applying voltage pulses to the tip of a scanning force microscope. The individual nanodomains were found to be of uniform size, which depended only on the inter-domain spacing and the pulse amplitude. We explain this behavior by the electrostatic repulsion of poling-induced buried charges between adjacent domains. The domain patterns were imaged by piezoresponse force microscopy and investigated by domain-selective etching in conjunction with focused ion beam etching followed by scanning electron microscopy imaging. In order to optimize the He-irradiation parameters for easy and reliable nanodomain patterning a series of samples subjected to various irradiation fluences and energies was prepared. The different samples were characterized by investigating nanodomains generated with a wide range of pulse parameters (amplitude and duration). In addition, these experiments clarified the physical mechanism behind the facile poling measured in He-irradiated lithium niobate crystals: the damage caused by the energy loss that takes place via electronic excitations appears to act to stabilize the domains, whereas the nuclear-collision damage degrades the crystal quality, and thus impedes reliable nanodomain generation.

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk