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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Jun;165(6):547-53. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.73.

Effectiveness of a citywide patient immunization navigator program on improving adolescent immunizations and preventive care visit rates.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.



To assess the impact of a tiered patient immunization navigator intervention (immunization tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach) on improving immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents.


Randomized clinical trial allocating adolescents (aged 11-15 years) to intervention vs standard of care control.


Eight primary care practices.


Population-based sample of adolescents (N = 7546).


Immunization navigators at each practice implemented a tiered protocol: immunization tracking, telephone or mail reminder/recall, and home visits if participants remained unimmunized or behind on preventive care visits.


Immunization rates at study end. Secondary outcomes were preventive care visit rates during the previous 12 months and costs.


The intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics (mean age, 13.5 years; 63% black, 14% white, and 23% Hispanic adolescents; and 74% receiving Medicaid), immunization rates, and preventive care visit rates. Immunization rates at the end of the study were 44.7% for the intervention group and 32.4% for the control group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5); preventive care visit rates were 68.0% for the intervention group and 55.2% for the control group (1.2; 1.2-1.3). Findings were similar across practices, sexes, ages, and insurance providers. The number needed to treat for immunizations and preventive care visits was 9. The intervention cost was $3.81 per adolescent per month; the cost per additional adolescent fully vaccinated was $465, and the cost per additional adolescent receiving a preventive care visit was $417.


A tiered tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach intervention improved immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT00581347.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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