Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Signal Transduct. 2011;2011:792639. doi: 10.1155/2011/792639. Epub 2011 Feb 6.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Reactive Oxygen Species: How Can ROS Activate MAPK Pathways?

Author information

  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that play the major role in signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs, which consist of growth factor-regulated extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and the stress-activated MAPKs, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 MAPKs, are part of a three-kinase signaling module composed of the MAPK, an MAPK kinase (MAP2K) and an MAPK kinase (MAP3K). MAP3Ks phosphorylate MAP2Ks, which in turn activate MAPKs. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), which recognize the TXY amino acid motif present in MAPKs, dephosphorylate and deactivate MAPKs. MAPK pathways are known to be influenced not only by receptor ligand interactions, but also by different stressors placed on the cell. One type of stress that induces potential activation of MAPK pathways is the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generally, increased ROS production in a cell leads to the activation of ERKs, JNKs, or p38 MAPKs, but the mechanisms by which ROS can activate these kinases are unclear. Oxidative modifications of MAPK signaling proteins and inactivation and/or degradation of MKPs may provide the plausible mechanisms for activation of MAPK pathways by ROS, which will be reviewed in this paper.

PMID:
21637379
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3100083
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Hindawi Publishing Corporation Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk