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Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2011 Dec;17(6):393-402. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2011.0182. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Harnessing and modulating inflammation in strategies for bone regeneration.

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  • 1Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892, USA.


Inflammation is an immediate response that plays a critical role in healing after fracture or injury to bone. However, in certain clinical contexts, such as in inflammatory diseases or in response to the implantation of a biomedical device, the inflammatory response may become chronic and result in destructive catabolic effects on the bone tissue. Since our previous review 3 years ago, which identified inflammatory signals critical for bone regeneration and described the inhibitory effects of anti-inflammatory agents on bone healing, a multitude of studies have been published exploring various aspects of this emerging field. In this review, we distinguish between regenerative and damaging inflammatory processes in bone, update our discussion of the effects of anti-inflammatory agents on bone healing, summarize recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating how inflammation can be modulated to stimulate bone regeneration, and identify key future directions in the field.

© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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