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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011 Jul 7;13(25):11838-40. doi: 10.1039/c1cp20468h. Epub 2011 May 25.

Multicolored electrochromism in 4,4'-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.

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  • 1Department of Image and Materials Science, Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, CHIBA, 263-8522, Japan.


We investigated the properties of 4,4'-biphenyl dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (PCE). The PCE underwent a 2-step reduction at -1.5 V and -2.2 V. The color of the PCE changed from colorless to yellow in the first step and consequently to red in the second reduction step. A PCE based EC cell using an NiO-modified electrode was also fabricated. The NiO electrode worked as a counter reaction material for PCE reduction. The PCE-NiO cell achieved multi-coloration ranging from colorless to yellow and red, and also achieved high coloration efficiency and long term switching stability.

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