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J Med Virol. 1990 Mar;30(3):219-29.

Prospective study of diarrheal diseases in Venezuelan children to evaluate the efficacy of rhesus rotavirus vaccine.

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  • 1Instituto de Biomedicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Abstract

The efficacy of a rhesus rotavirus vaccine (MMU 18006, serotype 3) against infantile diarrhea was evaluated by active home surveillance of a group of 320 children 1-10 months of age in Caracas, Venezuela. During a 1 year period following oral administration of vaccine or placebo under a double-masked code, over 600 diarrheal episodes were detected. Etiologic studies revealed that heat-stable toxin (ST) producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) was the most common diarrheal agent detected (34%) followed by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 10.9%), heat-labile toxin (LT) producing ETEC (7.6%), rotavirus (6.9%), Cryptosporidium (4.8%) and Campylobacter (1.3%). ST-producing ETEC were also recovered from over 20% of control stool specimens obtained during diarrhea-free periods, whereas EPEC, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, and Campylobacter were rarely detected in such control specimens. Rotavirus was responsible for about one-half of the more severe cases of diarrhea. Twenty-two of 151 infants who received placebo (14.6%) and eight of 151 receiving a 10(4) PFU dose of vaccine (5.3%) had rotavirus diarrhea during the follow-up period for an efficacy level of 64% against any rotavirus diarrhea. However, vaccine efficacy reached 90% against the more severe cases of rotavirus diarrhea and was noticeably high in the 1-4 month age group. Serotypic analysis of the rotaviruses detected suggests that the resistance induced by the vaccine was type specific since significant protection was only evident against serotype 3 rotaviruses. A 10(3) PFU dose tested initially in 18 children did not appear to protect against rotavirus diarrhea.

PMID:
2160516
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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