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Parkinsons Dis. 2011;2011:393769. doi: 10.4061/2011/393769. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Peripheral inflammation increases the damage in animal models of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration: possible implication in Parkinson's disease incidence.

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  • 1Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.


Inflammatory processes described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its animal models appear to be important in the progression of the pathogenesis, or even a triggering factor. Here we review that peripheral inflammation enhances the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system induced by different insults; different peripheral inflammations have been used, such as IL-1β and the ulcerative colitis model, as well as insults to the dopaminergic system such as 6-hydroxydopamine or lipopolysaccharide. In all cases, an increased loss of dopaminergic neurons was described; inflammation in the substantia nigra increased, displaying a great activation of microglia along with an increase in the production of cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α. Increased permeability or disruption of the BBB, with overexpression of the ICAM-1 adhesion molecule and infiltration of circulating monocytes into the substantia nigra, is also involved, since the depletion of circulating monocytes prevents the effects of peripheral inflammation. Data are reviewed in relation to epidemiological studies of PD.

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