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Diabetes. 2011 Jul;60(7):1907-16. doi: 10.2337/db10-1262. Epub 2011 May 18.

Klotho depletion contributes to increased inflammation in kidney of the db/db mouse model of diabetes via RelA (serine)536 phosphorylation.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Klotho is an antiaging hormone present in the kidney that extends the lifespan, regulates kidney function, and modulates cellular responses to oxidative stress. We investigated whether Klotho levels and signaling modulate inflammation in diabetic kidneys.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Renal Klotho expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis. Primary mouse tubular epithelial cells were treated with methylglyoxalated albumin, and Klotho expression and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was assessed by treating human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 and HK-2 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the presence or absence of Klotho, followed by immunoblot analysis to evaluate inhibitor of κB (IκB)α degradation, IκB kinase (IKK) and p38 activation, RelA nuclear translocation, and phosphorylation. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to analyze the effects of Klotho signaling on interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 promoter recruitment of RelA and RelA serine (Ser)(536).

RESULTS:

Renal Klotho mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in db/db mice, and a similar decline was observed in the primary cultures of mouse tubule epithelial cells treated with methylglyoxal-modified albumin. The exogenous addition of soluble Klotho or overexpression of membranous Klotho in tissue culture suppressed NF-κB activation and subsequent production of inflammatory cytokines in response to TNF-α stimulation. Klotho specifically inhibited RelA Ser(536) phosphorylation as well as promoter DNA binding of this phosphorylated form of RelA without affecting IKK-mediated IκBα degradation, total RelA nuclear translocation, and total RelA DNA binding.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that Klotho serves as an anti-inflammatory modulator, negatively regulating the production of NF-κB-linked inflammatory proteins via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of Ser(536) in the transactivation domain of RelA.

© 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.

PMID:
21593200
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3121423
Free PMC Article
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