Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Health Psychol. 2011 Sep;30(5):588-96. doi: 10.1037/a0023445.

Lapse-induced surges in craving influence relapse in adult smokers: an experimental investigation.

Author information

  • 1RAND Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA. shadel@rand.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Nearly all smokers who lapse experience a full-blown relapse, but the mediating mechanisms that contribute to this relationship are not well understood. A better understanding of these mechanisms would help to advance more effective relapse prevention treatments for smokers. The purpose of this study is to experimentally evaluate the effects of a programmed smoking lapse on smoking relapse and the effects of postlapse changes in craving on relapse.

METHOD:

Adult smokers (n = 63) who quit smoking with a brief cognitive-behavioral intervention and self-help materials were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions after 48 h of abstinence: No lapse (a no-smoking control/30-min waiting period) or lapse (smoking two cigarettes of their favored brand during a 30-min period). All participants were then followed daily for 14 days. Craving and biochemically verified self-reported abstinence were assessed on each follow-up day. Time (days) to relapse (7 consecutive days of smoking) was the main dependent measure.

RESULTS:

Results of Cox regression analysis revealed that participants in the lapse condition relapsed more quickly than participants in the no-lapse condition (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.03, 4.35]). These effects were attributable, in part, to episodic increases in craving among participants in the lapse condition only (HR = 12.42, 95% CI = [2.00, 77.1]).

CONCLUSIONS:

Previously abstinent smokers who lapse are at risk for increased cigarette cravings and consequently, full-blown relapse. These results have implications for both cognitive-behavioral treatments for relapse prevention and for medications designed to help smokers manage cravings.

PMID:
21574708
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3158283
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (1)Free text

Figure 1
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for American Psychological Association Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk