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Prev Vet Med. 2011 Nov 1;102(2):107-11. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.04.005. Epub 2011 May 12.

Bluetongue: history, global epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

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  • Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Abstract

Bluetongue is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of ruminants and certain other animals that was recognized and described more than 100 years ago in southern Africa. Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of ruminants and vector Culicoides insects is enzootic throughout tropical and temperate regions of the world; however, there have been drastic recent regional alterations in the global distribution of BTV infection, particularly in Europe since 1998. Multiple novel BTV serotypes also have been detected since 1998 in the south-eastern United States, apparently encroaching from the adjacent Caribbean ecosystem, and novel serotypes of BTV have been identified recently in other historically enzootic regions of the world, including the Middle East and Australia. It has been proposed, but certainly not proven, that global climate change is responsible for these events. BTV infection of ruminants is often subclinical, but outbreaks of severe disease occur with regular frequency especially at the upper and lower limits of the virus' global range where infection is highly seasonal - occurring in the late summer and autumn. Bluetongue disease results from vascular injury, likely through a process analogous to that of human hemorrhagic viral fevers in which production of vasoactive mediators from virus-infected macrophages and dendritic cells results in enhanced endothelial paracellular permeability with subsequent vascular leakage and hypovolemic shock.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21570141
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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