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Abdom Imaging. 2011 Dec;36(6):635-47. doi: 10.1007/s00261-011-9749-2.

The current role of minimally invasive therapies in the management of liver tumors.

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  • 1Department on Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard Karls University Hospital of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.


This is a review of minimally invasive therapy options for liver tumors, such as highly focused ultrasound, microwave ablation, and irreversible electroporation, as well as new aspects of radiofrequency ablation. Radiofrequency ablation is recommended for patients with early-stage HCC with up to 3 lesions with a tumor diameter within 3 cm and for patients with non-resectable liver metastasis. Indications and contraindications to treatment are designated, and different modalities for image-based therapy guidance are compared. Options for therapy monitoring and controlling are reviewed, namely intraprocedural tools, imaging and functional parameters and their evolution during therapy. Prevention and control of local recurrences is discussed. We also present a short review of current clinical results in treating liver metastasis and primary liver tumors.

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