Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Pathol. 2011 Jun;178(6):2845-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.02.003. Epub 2011 May 10.

RANKL expression specifically observed in vivo promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor progression.

Author information

  • 1Laboratory of Pathophysiology and Signal Transduction, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.


Recent findings have focused attention on the molecular consequences of the microenvironment in tumor progression, but events occurring in cancer cells themselves in response to their ambient conditions remain obscure. Here, we identify receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as a microenvironment-specific factor essential for tumorigenesis in vivo, using head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as a model. In human HNSCC tissues, RANKL is abundantly expressed, and its expression level correlates with the histological grade of differentiation. RANKL levels are significantly higher in poorly differentiated SCCs than in well or moderately differentiated SCCs. In contrast, all HNSCC cell lines tested displayed extremely low RANKL expression; however, RANKL is efficiently up-regulated when these cell lines are inoculated in the head and neck region of mice. RANKL expression is restored in a microenvironment-specific manner, and cannot be observed when the cells are inoculated in the hindlimbs. Forced expression of RANKL compensates for tumor growth in the hindlimb milieu, promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition, and induces tumor angiogenesis, in a manner independent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These results implicate RANKL expression causatively in tumor growth and progression in HNSCC in vivo. RANKL may provide a novel functional marker for biological malignancy and a therapeutic target based on the specific nature of the microenvironment.

Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk