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Int Rev Immunol. 2011 Apr-Jun;30(2-3):150-82. doi: 10.3109/08830185.2011.572210.

Adjuvants for enhancing the immunogenicity of whole tumor cell vaccines.

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  • 1Ovarian Cancer Research Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6142, USA.


Whole tumor cell lysates can serve as excellent multivalent vaccines for priming tumor-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Whole cell vaccines can be prepared with hypochlorous acid oxidation, UVB-irradiation and repeat cycles of freeze and thaw. One major obstacle to successful immunotherapy is breaking self-tolerance to tumor antigens. Clinically approved adjuvants, including Montanideā„¢ ISA-51 and 720, and keyhole-limpet proteins can be used to enhance tumor cell immunogenicity by stimulating both humoral and cellular anti-tumor responses. Other potential adjuvants, such as Toll-like receptor agonists (e.g., CpG, MPLA and PolyI:C), and cytokines (e.g., granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), have also been investigated.

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