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Circulation. 2011 Jun 14;123(23):2749-69. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31821c7c64. Epub 2011 May 9.

Nontraditional risk factors and biomarkers for cardiovascular disease: mechanistic, research, and clinical considerations for youth: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.


The rapid increase in the prevalence and severity of obesity in children is likely to lower the age of onset and increase the incidence of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology and improving the clinical management of cardiovascular disease involve a knowledge of novel risk factors and biomarkers. The clinical and mechanistic roles of these novel biological factors during childhood are currently being investigated. The goals of this scientific statement are to present the existing knowledge and theoretical framework of nontraditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease as they relate to children and adolescents, to describe the relevance and weight of available experimental and clinical evidence and the therapeutic implications pertaining to nontraditional risk factors in the pediatric population, and to stimulate further research with a goal of developing valid and reliable approaches to identify and validate novel risk factors that will aid in the clinical evaluation and perhaps prediction of cardiovascular disease in the pediatric population. Although several biomarkers are promising, substantial research is required before nontraditional risk factors can be used to identify and reduce cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents.

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