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Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jun 15;409(14):2761-7. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.04.013. Epub 2011 May 5.

Development of emission factors and emission inventories for motorcycles and light duty vehicles in the urban region in Vietnam.

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  • 1Centre for Environmental Monitoring, Data and Information, Vietnam Environment Administration, Hanoi, Vietnam.


This paper reports on a 2-year emissions monitoring program launched by the Centre for Environmental Monitoring of the Vietnam Environment Administration which aimed at determining emission factors and emission inventories for two typical types of vehicle in Hanoi, Vietnam. The program involves four major activities. A database for motorcycles and light duty vehicles (LDV) in Hanoi was first compiled through a questionnaire survey. Then, two typical driving cycles were developed for the first time for motorcycles and LDVs in Hanoi. Based on this database and the developed driving cycles for Hanoi, a sample of 12 representative test vehicles were selected to determine vehicle specific fuel consumption and emission factors (CO, HC, NOx and CO(2)). This set of emission factors were developed for the first time in Hanoi with due considerations of local driving characteristics. In particular, it was found that the emission factors derived from Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles and adopted in some previous studies were generally overestimated. Eventually, emission inventories for motorcycles and LDVs were derived by combining the vehicle population data, the developed vehicle specific emission factors and vehicle kilometre travelled (VKT) information from the survey. The inventory suggested that motorcycles contributed most to CO, HC and NOx emissions while LDVs appeared to be more fuel consuming.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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