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J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24;286(25):22339-47. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.243063. Epub 2011 Apr 29.

Mutagenesis mapping of the presenilin 1 calcium leak conductance pore.

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  • 1Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas 75390-9040, USA.

Abstract

Missense mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) proteins are a major cause of familial Alzheimer disease. Presenilins are proteins with nine transmembrane (TM) domains that function as catalytic subunits of the γ-secretase complex responsible for the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein and other type I transmembrane proteins. The water-filled cavity within presenilin is necessary to mediate the intramembrane proteolysis reaction. Consistent with this idea, cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and NMR studies revealed a number of water-accessible residues within TM7 and TM9 of mouse PS1. In addition to γ-secretase function, presenilins also demonstrate a low conductance endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak function, and many familial Alzheimer disease presenilin mutations impair this function. To map the potential Ca(2+) conductance pore in PS1, we systematically evaluated endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak activity supported by a series of cysteine point mutants in TM6, TM7, and TM9 of mouse PS1. The results indicate that TM7 and TM9, but not TM6, could play an important role in forming the conductance pore of PS1. These results are consistent with previous cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and NMR analyses of PS1 and provide further support for our hypothesis that the hydrophilic catalytic cavity of presenilins may also constitute a Ca(2+) conductance pore.

PMID:
21531718
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3121381
Free PMC Article

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