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Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jul 1;108(1):63-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.02.345. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

Comparison of long-term survival of men versus women with heart failure treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

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  • 1Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment of patients with heart failure. Several baseline characteristics can influence the CRT outcomes, and little is known about the effect of gender. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the gender-related differences in long-term survival after CRT. A total of 578 consecutive patients with heart failure underwent CRT. At baseline and 6 months after CRT, the clinical and echocardiographic parameters were obtained. All-cause mortality was compared between the men and women. The study population included 431 men (67 ± 9 years) and 147 women (65 ± 11 years). No differences in the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were observed between the men and women, except for left bundle branch block and a nonischemic etiology of heart failure, which were more frequent in women (81% vs 68% and 63% vs 33%, respectively; p <0.01), and atrial fibrillation, which was more prevalent in men (20% vs 10%, respectively; p = 0.01). During a mean follow-up of 34 ± 25 months, 197 patients died (158 men and 39 women). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in long-term survival between the women and men (p = 0.007). The 2-year all-cause mortality rate was 15% in men and 8% in women (p = 0.025). Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed female gender is an independent predictor of long-term survival, together with heart failure etiology and renal function. In particular, women with heart failure due to a nonischemic etiology showed the best long-term survival rate. In conclusion, female gender and nonischemic etiology were independently associated with better long-term survival after CRT.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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