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J Biomed Opt. 2011 Apr;16(4):046019. doi: 10.1117/1.3569615.

Cell tracking in live Caenorhabditis elegans embryos via third harmonic generation imaging microscopy measurements.

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  • 1Foundation of Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, PO Box 1385, Heraklion, Crete 71110, Greece.


In this study, we demonstrate the potential of employing third harmonic generation (THG) imaging microscopy measurements for cell tracking studies in live Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) embryos. A 1028-nm femtosecond laser was used for the excitation of unstained C. elegans samples. Different C. elegans embryonic stages (from two-cell to threefold) were imaged. Live biological specimens were irradiated for prolonged periods of time (up to 7 h), testifying to the nondestructive nature of this nonlinear imaging technique. Thus, THG image contrast modality is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing in vivo cell division during early embryogenesis.

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