Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cytokine. 2011 Jul;55(1):126-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2011.03.002. Epub 2011 Apr 27.

H-Ras-specific upregulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promotes human breast cell invasion via matrix metalloproteinase-2.

Author information

  • 1College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Ras expression has been suggested to be a marker for tumor aggressiveness of breast cancer. We previously showed that H-Ras, but not N-Ras, induced invasive/migratory phenotypes in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells. The present study aimed to determine the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in H-Ras-induced malignant progression of human breast epithelial cells. Here, we show that G-CSF plays a crucial role in H-Ras-induced MCF10A cell invasion and migration. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of G-CSF significantly reduced H-Ras-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression, as well as invasion/migration, suggesting the functional significance of G-CSF in the invasive phenotype of human breast cells. Importantly, the induction of G-CSF expression conferred the invasive/migratory phenotypes to MCF10A cells with up-regulation of MMP-2 and activation of Rac1, MKK3/6, p38 MAPK, Akt, and ERKs. Knockdown of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited MMP-2 upregulation and invasiveness of G-CSF MCF10A cells, demonstrating that G-CSF-induced MMP-2 upregulation and invasive phenotype is mediated by Rac1. Using human breast tissues and sera from breast cancer patients, we further demonstrate that the expression level of G-CSF is strongly correlated with pathologically-diagnosed breast cancer. These data provide a molecular basis for the crucial role of G-CSF in promoting invasiveness of human breast epithelial cells.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk