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Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 May;19(5):430-9. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181f7d881.

Ethnoracial differences in the clinical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease at initial presentation at an urban Alzheimer's disease center.

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  • 1From the Penn Memory Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare presentation of Alzheimer disease (AD) at the time of initial evaluation at a university specialty clinic across three ethnoracial groups in order to understand similarities and differences in the demographic, clinical, cognitive, psychiatric, and biologic features.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

PARTICIPANTS:

A total of 1,341 self-identified African American, Latino (primarily of Caribbean origin), and white non-Hispanic ("WNH") subjects were recruited from primary care sites or by referral by primary care physicians.

MEASUREMENTS:

Demographic variables and age of onset of AD, as well as cognitive, functional, and mood impairments at the time of initial presentation and frequencies of apolipoprotein E genotypes, were compared across groups.

RESULTS:

Differences among ethnoracial groups were found for nearly all variables of interest. In particular, the largely immigrant Puerto Rican Latino group had an earlier age of onset of AD, more cognitive impairment, and greater severity of cognitive impairment at the time of initial evaluation in the setting of low average education and socioeconomic status. There was more depression in the Latinos compared with African Americans and WNHs. Greater severity of symptoms was not accounted for by a difference in lag time between onset of symptoms and initial evaluation. The apolipoprotein E-4 genotype was not associated with AD in the Latino cohort.

CONCLUSIONS:

Minority groups in Philadelphia, especially Latinos, exhibit a more severe profile of AD at the time of presentation than WNHs. Important potential confounds need to be considered and future research comparing immigrant and nonimmigrant Latino groups will be necessary to elucidate the highly significant differences reported.

PMID:
21522051
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3085004
Free PMC Article
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