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J Occup Environ Med. 2011 May;53(5):488-96. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31821576dd.

Health-related and sociodemographic risk factors for disability pension due to low back disorders: a 30-year prospective Finnish Twin Cohort Study.

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  • 1Ergonomics, Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.



To investigate health-related and sociodemographic risk factors for disability pensions (DP) due to low back disorders (LBD).


Questionnaire data in 1975 of the Finnish Twin Cohort Study with record linkage to information on DP due to LBD from the official pension registers during follow-up 1975 to 2004 was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models.


Musculoskeletal pain (Hazards Ratio [HR] = 2.36 to 2.39; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.88), smoking (HR = 1.82; 1.49 to 2.22), frequent analgesics use (HR = 1.67; 1.38 to 2.02), and presence of other chronic disease (HR = 1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) increased the risk for DP due to LBD. Years of education decreased the risk (HR = 0.81; 0.77 to 0.85). Associations remained significant when adjusted for familial background.


Health-related and sociodemographic risk factors for DP due to LBD can be identified early in life, and they seem independent from familial effects.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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