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J Med Virol. 2011 Jul;83(7):1113-20. doi: 10.1002/jmv.22078. Epub 2011 Apr 22.

Antigenic and genetic variation in the hemagglutinins of H1N1 and H3N2 human influenza a viruses in the Shanghai area from 2005 to 2008.

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  • 1Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.


Continued rapid evolution of the influenza A virus is responsible for annual epidemics and occasional pandemics in the Shanghai area. In the present study, the representative strains of A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses isolated in the Shanghai area from 2005 to 2008 were antigenically and genetically characterized. The antigenic cartography method was carried out to visualize the hemagglutination-inhibition data. Antigenic differences were detected between circulating A/H1N1 strains isolated from 2005 to 2006 and the epidemic A/H1N1 strains isolated in 2008, which were found to be associated with the amino acid substitution K140E in HA1. The present vaccine strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 is considered to be capable of providing sufficient immunity against most of the circulating A/H1N1 viruses isolated in 2008 from the Shanghai population. The study showed that there were significant antigenic differences between the epidemic A/H3N2 strains isolated in 2007 and 2008, suggesting that antigenic drift had occurred in the A/H3N2 strains isolated in 2008. The P194L mutation was thought to be responsible for the antigenic evolution of influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from Shanghai in 2008. Evidence of antigenic drift suggests that the influenza A/H3N2 vaccine component needs to be updated.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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