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J Surg Oncol. 2011 Aug 1;104(2):155-61. doi: 10.1002/jso.21954. Epub 2011 Apr 25.

Neoadjuvant GTX chemotherapy and IMRT-based chemoradiation for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer.

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  • 1Division of Gastrointestinal Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA.



To improve the likelihood of achieving a margin-free resection, neoadjuvant induction chemotherapy with GTX (gemcitabine, docetaxel, and capecitabine) followed by 5-FU-IMRT was administered to patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. The utility of computed tomography (CT), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), positron emission tomography (PET), and CA 19-9 during diagnostic workup and assessment of response was also examined.


Seventeen patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer received a median of three cycles of neoadjuvant GTX induction chemotherapy followed by 5-FU-IMRT with dose painting. CA 19-9, CT mass size, and PET SUV were examined before and after neoadjuvant treatment.


Diagnostic EUS and CT scans displayed similar mean mass sizes and extent of vascular involvement. Eight of the 17 patients achieved an R0 resection. Median CA 19-9 levels, CT mass size, and PET SUV all significantly decreased after neoadjuvant therapy. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 10.48 and 15.64 months, respectively. Six patients are still alive.


Neoadjuvant GTX induction chemotherapy followed by 5-FU-IMRT shows promise in improving the likelihood of resectability with negative margins in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. CT and EUS play complimentary roles during diagnostic workup. CT scans, CA 19-9, and PET scans are useful in judging response to neoadjuvant therapy.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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