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Traffic. 2011 Oct;12(10):1282-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01208.x. Epub 2011 May 13.

Proline-rich regions and motifs in trafficking: from ESCRT interaction to viral exploitation.

Author information

  • 1Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Most membrane-enveloped viruses bud from infected cells by hijacking the host ESCRT machinery. The ESCRTs are recruited to the budding sites by viral proteins that contain short proline (Pro)-rich motifs (PRMs) known as late domains. The late domains probably evolved by co-opting host PRMs involved in the normal functions of ESCRTs in endosomal sorting and cytokinesis. The solution and crystal structures of PRMs bound to their interaction partners explain the conserved roles of Pro and other residues that predominate in these sequences. PRMs are often grouped together in much larger Pro-rich regions (PRRs) of as many as 150 residues. The PRR of the ESCRT-associated protein, ALIX, autoregulates its conformation and activity. The robustness of different viral budding and host pathways to impairments in Pro-based interactions varies considerably. The known biology of PRM recognition in the ESCRT pathway seems, in principle, compatible with antiviral development, given our increasingly nuanced understanding of the relative weakness and robustness of the host and viral processes.

© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PMID:
21518163
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3158961
Free PMC Article

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