Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nat Immunol. 2011 Jun;12(6):568-75. doi: 10.1038/ni.2031. Epub 2011 Apr 24.

The encephalitogenicity of T(H)17 cells is dependent on IL-1- and IL-23-induced production of the cytokine GM-CSF.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.


Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) require exposure to IL-23 to become encephalitogenic, but the mechanism by which IL-23 promotes their pathogenicity is not known. Here we found that IL-23 induced production of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in T(H)17 cells and that GM-CSF had an essential role in their encephalitogenicity. Our findings identify a chief mechanism that underlies the important role of IL-23 in autoimmune diseases. IL-23 induced a positive feedback loop whereby GM-CSF secreted by T(H)17 cells stimulated the production of IL-23 by antigen-presenting cells. Such cross-regulation of IL-23 and GM-CSF explains the similar pattern of resistance to autoimmunity when either of the two cytokines is absent and identifies T(H)17 cells as a crucial source of GM-CSF in autoimmune inflammation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances, Grant Support

Publication Types

MeSH Terms


Grant Support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk