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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 May;30(5):371-4. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318204dcf3.

Characteristics of first urinary tract infection with fever in children: a prospective clinical and imaging study.

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  • 1Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hôpital Universitaire des Enfants-Reine Fabiola, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.



Our objective is to provide the clinical characteristics, uropathogen frequencies, and antimicrobial resistance rates of first urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosed in febrile Belgian children. The ability of noninvasive ultrasound to detect renal abnormalities and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in these patients was also assessed.


We prospectively followed (median, 20 months) 209 children treated for first febrile UTI. Renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrography examinations were performed in all patients.


Among these children, 63% were females and 37% were males, and 75% of them had their first UTI before the age of 2 years. The most common causative agent was Escherichia coli (91% of cases) with high rate resistance to ampicillin (58%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (38%). Of these children, 25% had evidence of VUR (15 boys and 38 girls). VUR was of low grade in 85% of cases. The overall performance of renal US as a diagnostic test to detect significant uropathies excluding low-grade VUR was excellent; the sensitivity attained 97% and the specificity 94%.


Girls represent 63% of cases with first UTI. For 91% of UTIs, Escherichia coli is held responsible with a high rate of resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. US is an excellent screening tool that allows avoidance of unjustified voiding cystourethrography studies.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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