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Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May;52 Suppl 6:S452-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir111.

Candida urinary tract infections--diagnosis.

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  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.


The finding of candiduria in a patient with or without symptoms should be neither dismissed nor hastily treated, but requires a careful evaluation, which should proceed in a logical fashion. Symptoms of Candida pyelonephritis, cystitis, prostatitis, or epididymo-orchitis are little different from those of the same infections produced by other pathogens. Candiduria occurring in critically ill patients should initially be regarded as a marker for the possibility of invasive candidiasis. The first step in evaluation is to verify funguria by repeating the urinalysis and urine culture. Pyuria is a nonspecific finding; the morphology of the offending yeast may allow separation of Candida glabrata from other species. Candida casts in the urine are indicative of renal candidiasis but are rarely seen. With respect to culture, colony counts have not proved to be diagnostically useful. In symptomatic or critically ill patients with candiduria, ultrasonography of the kidneys and collecting systems is the preferred initial study. However, computed tomography (CT) is better able to discern pyelonephritis or perinephric abscess. The role of magnetic resonance imaging and renal scintigraphy is ill defined, and prudent physicians should consult with colleagues in the departments of radiology and urology to determine the optimal studies in candiduric patients who require in-depth evaluation.

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