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J Urol. 2011 Jun;185(6):2171-6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.060. Epub 2011 Apr 17.

Histological evidence of urethral involvement in male patients with genital lichen sclerosus: a preliminary report.

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  • 1Center for Reconstructive Urethral Surgery, Arezzo, Italy.



Using pathological examination we evaluated the involvement of lichen sclerosus in urethral strictures in men.


We performed an observational, descriptive, retrospective study of patients treated for genital lichen sclerosus who had at least 1 biopsy positive for lichen sclerosus. Study exclusion criteria were malignant penile lesions, incomplete data on personal charts and biopsies negative for lichen sclerosus. Preoperative evaluation included clinical history, physical examination, urine culture, post-void residual urine measurement, uroflowmetry and urethrography. Biopsies were taken from the foreskin, penile skin, glans, urethral meatus, mucosa of the navicularis, and penile and bulbar urethra to confirm the lichen sclerosus diagnosis and spread of the disease through the urethra. Patients were classified into 5 groups by surgical procedure.


Included in the study were 99 patients with a median age of 46 years who were diagnosed with genital lichen sclerosus. Of 274 biopsies 234 (85.4%) were positive for lichen sclerosus. Group 1 included 39 patients who underwent circumcision, group 2 included 15 who underwent meatotomy, group 3 included 15 who underwent navicularis urethroplasty, group 4 included 17 who underwent penile urethroplasty and group 5 included 13 who underwent perineal urethrostomy. Lichen sclerosus was documented by histology in the meatus in 91.5% of cases, in the navicularis in 84.4% and in the penile urethra in 70.6%. All biopsies from the bulbar urethra were negative.


Involvement of lichen sclerosus through the navicularis and penile urethra was documented. No sign of lichen sclerosus was found in the bulbar urethra.

Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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