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Handb Clin Neurol. 2011;100:641-57. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52014-2.00046-X.

Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders.

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  • 1Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore 21287, USA. hsinger@jhmi.edu

Abstract

Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome, are an intriguing group of paroxysmal movement abnormalities that begin in childhood, have a fluctuating course, are capable of causing psychosocial and physical problems, and often improve by early adulthood. These disorders are frequently associated with a variety of comorbid problems whose negative effects may exceed those of tics. Therapy is strictly symptomatic and usually includes educational, behavioral, and a variety of pharmacological therapies. Although there is strong evidence supporting an inherited basis, the precise genetic abnormality remains unknown. A proposed poststreptococcal autoimmune etiology remains controversial. Pathophysiologically, tics appear to arise from an alteration within cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, but the definitive site is unknown. Evidence supports an abnormality of synaptic neurotransmission, likely involving the dopaminergic system.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PMID:
21496613
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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