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J Surg Oncol. 2011 Sep 1;104(3):323-32. doi: 10.1002/jso.21943. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.


Optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence provides new prospects for general and oncologic surgery. ICG is currently utilised in NIR fluorescence cancer-related surgery for three indications: sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, intraoperative identification of solid tumours, and angiography during reconstructive surgery. Therefore, understanding its advantages and limitations is of significant importance. Although non-targeted and non-conjugatable, ICG appears to be laying the foundation for more widespread use of NIR fluorescence-guided surgery.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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