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Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Apr 13;(4):CD004388. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004388.pub4.

Human recombinant activated protein C for severe sepsis.

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  • 1Universidad de Carabobo and Iberoamerican Cochrane Network, Valencia, Edo. Carabobo, Venezuela.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Sepsis is a common and frequently fatal condition. Human recombinant activated protein C (APC) has been used to reduce the high rate of death by severe sepsis or septic shock. This is an update of a Cochrane review (originally published in 2007 and updated in 2008).

OBJECTIVES:

We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of APC for the treatment of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

For this updated review we searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 6); MEDLINE (1966 to June 2010); EMBASE (1980 to July 1, 2010); BIOSIS (1965 to July 1, 2010); CINAHL (1982 to 16 June 2010) and LILACS (1982 to 16 June 2010). There was no language restriction.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of APC for severe sepsis in adults and children. We excluded studies on neonates. We considered all-cause mortality at day 28, at the end of study follow up, and hospital mortality as the primary outcomes.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We estimated relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using the I(2) statistic. We used a random-effects model.

MAIN RESULTS:

We identified one new RCT in this update. We included a total of five RCTs involving 5101 participants. For 28-day mortality, APC did not reduce the risk of death in adult participants with severe sepsis (pooled RR 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78 to 1.22; P = 0.82, I(2) = 68%). APC use was associated with an increased risk of bleeding (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.00; P = 0.01, I(2) = 0%). In paediatric patients, APC did not reduce the risk of death (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.46; P = 0.93). Although the included trials had no major limitations most of them modified their original completion or recruitment protocols.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

This updated review found no evidence suggesting that APC should be used for treating patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Additionally, APC is associated with a higher risk of bleeding. Unless additional RCTs provide evidence of a treatment effect, policy-makers, clinicians and academics should not promote the use of APC.

PMID:
21491390
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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