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Immunol Rev. 2011 May;241(1):133-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01012.x.

Molecular mechanisms of T-cell tolerance.

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  • 1Department of Immunology and Center for Inflammation and Cancer, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


CD4(+) T cells are the master regulators of adaptive immune responses, and many autoimmune diseases arise due to a breakdown of self-tolerance in CD4(+) T cells. Activation of CD4(+) T cells is regulated by not only the binding of peptide-major histocompatibility complexes to T-cell receptor but also costimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells. Recently, there has been progress in understanding the extracellular and intracellular mechanisms that are required for implementation and maintenance of T-cell tolerance. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell tolerance will lead to development of pharmacological approaches either to promote the tolerance state in terms of autoimmunity or to break tolerance in cancer.

© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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