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PLoS One. 2011 Mar 31;6(3):e18432. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018432.

Beneficial effects of alternate dietary regimen on liver inflammation, atherosclerosis and renal activation.

Author information

  • 1TNO-Metabolic Health Research, Leiden, The Netherlands. Peter.Wielinga@tno.nl

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alternate day calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to be almost as beneficial as daily CR. The question arises whether this concept is also applicable to alternating dietary composition.

OBJECTIVE:

To seek evidence that alternating high cholesterol (HC)-cholesterol-free (CON) Western diet can effectively diminish hepatic and renal inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors as compared with daily HC-supplemented Western diet.

DESIGN:

Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice, a humanized model for atherosclerosis, were subjected to different feeding treatments for 16 weeks. Mice were fed CON diet; CON diet with 1% w/w cholesterol (HC); alternate (ALT) diet regimen of CON (4 days) and HC (3 days); or CON diet supplemented with 0.43% (w/w) cholesterol (MC), with overall dietary cholesterol intake equal to ALT. Plasma was analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors, aorta for atherosclerotic lesion formation, and liver and kidney for inflammation.

RESULTS:

ALT diet but not MC was almost as effective as daily CON feeding in preventing disease development. Compared to HC, the ALT group showed 62% lower hepatic nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity (P<0.001), a reduction of the circulating inflammatory markers E-selectin (-20%; P<0.05), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1; -15%; P<0.05) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA; -31%; P<0.05), smaller atherosclerotic lesion sizes (-51%; 46497±10791 µm2 vs. 94664±16470 µm2; P<0.05) and diminished renal expression of specific inflammation and activation markers (VCAM-1, -27%; P<0.05; monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1); -37%; P<0.01).

CONCLUSION:

Alternate HC-CON feeding reproduced most of the beneficial effects of daily cholesterol-free diet, including strongly diminished hepatic, vascular and renal activation and inflammation; also atherosclerosis was reduced by half as compared to HC, albeit still higher compared to the CON group.

PMID:
21483792
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3069095
Free PMC Article
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