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J Surg Oncol. 2011 May 1;103(6):468-74. doi: 10.1002/jso.21709.

Tumor microenvironment and progression.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.


Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least six distinct types, are induced primarily by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and provide a potentially useful therapeutic target. Breast cancer is characterized by changes in the microenvironment that result in altered tensional homeostasis. Also, breast cancers arise as the result of epigenetic as well as genetic changes. Tumor blood vessel pericytes result, in part, from bone marrow precursor cells, and VEGF is a negative regulator of glioblastoma tumor cell invasion.

Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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