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Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2011 Feb;7(2):88-95.

New Developments in Traveler's Diarrhea.

Author information

  • 1Dr. de la Cabada Bauche is a Visiting Scientist at the University of Texas School of Public Health in Houston, Texas.

Abstract

Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. More than 60% of TD cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and noncholera Vibrios. Noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. Recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility to pathogen-specific TD. Prevention strategies should be emphasized, as all individuals with TD experience approximately 24 hours of disability and 5-10% experience chronic functional bowel disease. Poorly absorbed rifaximin provides protection for trips lasting 2 weeks or less. TD vaccines are also currently in development. All individuals planning trips to developing regions should be armed with 1 of the 3 agents that have shown efficacy for self-treatment of TD: ciprofloxacin (or levofloxacin), rifaximin, or azithromycin, depending upon the location of the trip. Although global epidemiologic changes in etiologic agents as well as antibiotic resistance patterns have been better understood recently, changes should be expected during the next decade due to new prevention and treatment approaches.

KEYWORDS:

Traveler's diarrhea, azithromycin, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, irritable bowel syndrome, rifaximin

PMID:
21475415
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3061023
Free PMC Article

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