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Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2011 Aug;12(8):1184-93.

Dermaseptins as models for the elucidation of membrane-acting helical amphipathic antimicrobial peptides.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Croissance Cellulaire, la Réparation et la Régénération Tissulaires, EAC 7149 CNRS Université Paris EST Créteil 61, Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex, FRANCE. mohamed.amiche@u-pec.fr

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by a wide variety of organisms are major actors of the host defense systems against invading pathogenic microorganisms. These peptides exhibit a broad spectrum of action against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, protozoa and viruses. It is widely believed that a large part of their antimicrobial effect derives from direct interactions with the lipid membrane surrounding the target cells, causing its permeabilization and cell lysis. However, the exact nature of these interactions is presently unclear. The skin of the amphibians has proved to be a remarkably rich storehouse of AMPs that encompass a wide variety of structural motifs. This natural AMP bank is used in combined approaches, based on biophysical and cellular biology methods, to elucidate how these peptides perturb the membrane and whether such membrane perturbations are related to the antimicrobial activity of these peptides. Here we review our current knowledge about the structure and the mechanism of action of the dermaseptin super-family, α-helical amphipathic AMPs isolated from the skin of frogs of the Phyllomedusa genus. Dermaseptins are genetically related, with a remarkable identity in signal sequences and acidic propieces of their preproforms but have clearly diverged to yield several families of microbicidal cationic peptides that are structurally distinct. Particularly, we focused on the orthologous peptides dermaseptin S and B of which the shortening from the carboxy terminal extremity causes a drastic change in their membrane disruption activity. These peptides could be good models to study the membrane-peptide interactions discussed in this review.

PMID:
21470155
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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