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Plant Cell. 2011 Apr;23(4):1249-63. doi: 10.1105/tpc.110.082537. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Unlocking the barley genome by chromosomal and comparative genomics.

Author information

  • 1Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences/Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Institute for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Center Munich, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.

Abstract

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding.

PMID:
21467582
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3101540
Free PMC Article

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