Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Urol. 2011 Jun;59(6):1019-25. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.03.021. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Feasibility of transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery-assisted living donor nephrectomy: is kidney vaginal delivery the approach of the future?

Author information

  • 1Department of Urology, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic - Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.



Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) uses natural orifices to access the abdominal cavity. We adapted NOTES to perform transvaginal NOTES-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy in living donors.


To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of this procedure and compare it with conventional laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN).


From July 2009 to October 2010, 20 women underwent transvaginal NOTES-assisted living donor nephrectomy (LDN) in our centre. We compared the prospectively collected clinical data of each donor with those of a contemporaneous matched pair of conventional LLDNs (40 donors).


The procedure was performed using three abdominal trocars and one trocar through the vaginal wall.


Variables evaluated for donors were procedure length, blood loss, warm ischaemia time (WIT), complications, hospital stay, and first-month creatinine nadir. In the transvaginal LDN group, sexual function was assessed with the Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire before and after surgery. Variables evaluated for recipients were complications, graft function, and creatinine evolution.


The procedure was completed in all cases. Operative variables were similar for both groups except for WIT, which was longer in the transvaginal LDN group (p<0.001) without consequences for graft functioning. One transvaginal LDN case had postoperative bleeding requiring immediate open surgery. All transvaginal LDN donors reported unaltered sexual function after surgery and satisfaction with the results. All recipients had immediate urine output, and all had a functioning graft at last follow-up except for one recipient of the transvaginal LDN group who required transplantectomy. Despite promising results, randomised controlled studies with longer follow-up are warranted to further elucidate the potential of this novel technique.


Transvaginal NOTES-assisted LDN appears to be a feasible and reproducible surgical technique. The WIT was longer in the transvaginal group, and there was no effect on graft function after the short follow-up.

Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk