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Transpl Infect Dis. 2011 Oct;13(5):501-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2011.00622.x. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Combined liver-kidney transplantation in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

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  • 1Department of General Surgery, Liver and Multivisceral Transplant Center, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.


Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a major global health problem for almost 3 decades, with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996 and effective prophylaxis and management of opportunistic infections, mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has decreased markedly. In developed countries, this condition is now being treated as a chronic condition. As a result, rates of morbidity and mortality from other medical conditions leading to end-stage liver, kidney, and heart disease are steadily increasing in individuals with HIV. Because the definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is transplantation, the demand for it has increased among HIV-infected patients. For these reasons, many transplant centers have eliminated HIV infection as a contraindication to transplantation, as a result of better patient management and demand.

© 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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