Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nature. 2011 Mar 17;471(7338):387-91. doi: 10.1038/nature09767.

Progesterone activates the principal Ca2+ channel of human sperm.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, UCSF Mail Code 2140, Genentech Hall Room N272F, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.

Abstract

Steroid hormone progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg is a potent stimulator of human spermatozoa. It attracts spermatozoa towards the egg and helps them penetrate the egg's protective vestments. Progesterone induces Ca(2+) influx into spermatozoa and triggers multiple Ca(2+)-dependent physiological responses essential for successful fertilization, such as sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and chemotaxis towards the egg. As an ovarian hormone, progesterone acts by regulating gene expression through a well-characterized progesterone nuclear receptor. However, the effect of progesterone upon transcriptionally silent spermatozoa remains unexplained and is believed to be mediated by a specialized, non-genomic membrane progesterone receptor. The identity of this non-genomic progesterone receptor and the mechanism by which it causes Ca(2+) entry remain fundamental unresolved questions in human reproduction. Here we elucidate the mechanism of the non-genomic action of progesterone on human spermatozoa by identifying the Ca(2+) channel activated by progesterone. By applying the patch-clamp technique to mature human spermatozoa, we found that nanomolar concentrations of progesterone dramatically potentiate CatSper, a pH-dependent Ca(2+) channel of the sperm flagellum. We demonstrate that human CatSper is synergistically activated by elevation of intracellular pH and extracellular progesterone. Interestingly, human CatSper can be further potentiated by prostaglandins, but apparently through a binding site other than that of progesterone. Because our experimental conditions did not support second messenger signalling, CatSper or a directly associated protein serves as the elusive non-genomic progesterone receptor of sperm. Given that the CatSper-associated progesterone receptor is sperm specific and structurally different from the genomic progesterone receptor, it represents a promising target for the development of a new class of non-hormonal contraceptives.

Comment in

PMID:
21412339
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk