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Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2010 Dec;22(4):223-30. doi: 10.1177/1531003511400426.

Syndromes associated with the deep veins: phlegmasia cerulea dolens, May-Thurner syndrome, and nutcracker syndrome.

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  • 1Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, G5/315 Clinical Sciences Center, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53792-3284, USA.


Although phlegmasia cerulea dolens, May-Thurner syndrome, and nutcracker syndrome are rare entities, knowledge of these syndromes associated with the deep veins is essential. This study presents current management of these disorders, including diagnostic and interventional strategies. Endovascular techniques have evolved and now play a significant role in the treatment of both phlegmasia cerulea dolens and May-Thurner syndrome. However, endovascular therapy for nutcracker syndrome remains untested.

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