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Indian J Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;46(2):125-34.

Concept and Management of Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS).

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  • 1Senior Resident, Dept. of Psychiatry, PGIMER, Chandigarh - 160 012, India.


Treatment resistance in schizophrenia is a fairly common problem faced by psychiatrists worldwide. The concept and definition of Treatment Resistant Schizophrenia (TRS) is still far from satisfactory. Data suggests the presence of biological factors underlying TRS. Second generation antipsychotics are advocated for patients with TRS. However, till date, clozapine remains the treatment of choice. Evidence for other pharmacological measures and ECT is accumulating. Psychosocial interventions do form an integral component of management of TRS. It can be concluded that, with advances in sychopharmacology, TRS needs to be better researched and managed in the future.


Schizophrenia; a typical antipsychotics; clozapine; difficult to treat schizophrenia; treatment resistant

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