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Plant Physiol. 2011 May;156(1):173-84. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.174417. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS D and regulates flowering in Arabidopsis.

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  • 1Institute of Plant Biology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan.


Histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in epigenetic controls of gene expression. HISTONE DEACETYLASE6 (HDA6) is a REDUCED POTASSIUM DEPENDENCY3-type histone deacetylase, and the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hda6 mutant axe1-5 displayed a late-flowering phenotype. axe1-5/flc-3 double mutants flowered earlier than axe1-5 plants, indicating that the late-flowering phenotype of axe1-5 was FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) dependent. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, in vitro pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed the protein-protein interaction between HDA6 and the histone demethylase FLD. It was found that the SWIRM domain in the amino-terminal region of FLD and the carboxyl-terminal region of HDA6 are responsible for the interaction between these two proteins. Increased levels of histone H3 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation at FLC, MAF4, and MAF5 were found in both axe1-5 and fld-6 plants, suggesting functional interplay between histone deacetylase and demethylase in flowering control. These results support a scenario in which histone deacetylation and demethylation cross talk are mediated by physical association between HDA6 and FLD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that HDA6 bound to the chromatin of several potential target genes, including FLC and MAF4. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that, in addition to genes related to flowering, genes involved in gene silencing and stress response were also affected in hda6 mutants, revealing multiple functions of HDA6. Furthermore, a subset of transposons was up-regulated and displayed increased histone hyperacetylation, suggesting that HDA6 can also regulate transposons through deacetylating histone.

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