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Kidney Int. 2011 May;79(10):1061-70. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.46. Epub 2011 Mar 9.

Non-pharmacological aspects of blood pressure management: what are the data?

Author information

  • 1Renal Section, Medical Service, Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, Texas 75216-7167, USA. susan.hedayati@utsouthwestern.edu

Abstract

Hypertension affects 29% of US adults and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data support contribution of several dietary and other lifestyle-related factors to the development of high blood pressure (BP). Several clinical trials investigated the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modifications to reduce BP. Best evidence from randomized controlled trials supports BP-lowering effects of weight loss, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and dietary sodium (Na(+)) reduction in those with prehypertension, with more pronounced effects in those with hypertension. In hypertensive participants, the effects on BP of DASH combined with low Na(+) alone or with the addition of weight loss were greater than or equal to those of single-drug therapy. Trials where food was provided to participants were more successful in showing a BP-lowering effect. However, clinical studies with long-term follow-up revealed that lifestyle modifications were difficult to maintain. Findings from controlled trials of increased potassium, calcium, or magnesium intake, or reduction in alcohol intake revealed modest BP-lowering effects and are less conclusive. The reported effects of exercise independent of weight loss on BP are inconsistent.

PMID:
21389976
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3226743
Free PMC Article
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