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J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;58(3):228-39. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e3182163b82.

Pharmacogenomics of cardiovascular drugs and adverse effects in pediatrics.

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  • 1Department of Medical Genetics, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.


Individual response to medication is highly variable. For many drugs, a substantial proportion of patients show suboptimal response at standard doses, whereas others experience adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Pharmacogenomics aims to identify genetic factors underlying this variability in drug response, providing solutions to improve drug efficacy and safety. We review recent advances in pharmacogenomics of cardiovascular drugs and cardiovascular ADRs, including warfarin, clopidogrel, β-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, drug-induced long QT syndrome, and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. We particularly focus on the applicability of pharmacogenomic findings to pediatric patients in whom developmental changes in body size and organ function may affect drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Solid evidence supports the importance of gene variants in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 for warfarin dosing and in CYP2C19 for clopidogrel response in adult patients. For the other cardiovascular drugs or cardiovascular ADRs, further studies are needed to replicate or clarify genetic associations before considering uptake of pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice. With the exception of warfarin and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity, there is lack of pharmacogenomic studies on cardiovascular drug response or ADRs aimed specifically at children or adolescents. The first pediatric warfarin pharmacogenomic study indeed indicates differences from adults, pointing out the importance and need for pediatric-focused pharmacogenomic studies.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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