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Phys Sportsmed. 2011 Feb;39(1):108-15. doi: 10.3810/psm.2011.02.1868.

ACL injury and surgical treatment options.

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  • 1Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.


The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been the focus of a substantial amount of research. Thousands of studies have evaluated the structure and function of the intact ACL, as well as the best reconstruction techniques. Despite the amount of literature, many controversies remain regarding the ACL and its surgical reconstruction. This article reviews the anatomy and function of the native ACL, the nature of injury, and aspects of ACL reconstruction, including surgical approach, tunnel positioning, graft choice, and graft fixation.

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