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J Plant Physiol. 2011 Jun 15;168(9):903-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2010.11.024. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

Extracellular Ca²+ alleviates NaCl-induced stomatal opening through a pathway involving H₂O₂-blocked Na+ influx in Vicia guard cells.

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  • 1Key Laboratory of Plant Stress Biology, College of Life Sciences, Henan University, 85 Minglun Street, Kaifeng 475004, People's Republic of China.


To gain further insights into the function of extracellular Ca²+ in alleviating salt stress, Vicia faba guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) were patch-clamped in a whole-cell configuration. The results showed that 100 mM NaCl clearly induced Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in GCPs and promoted stomatal opening. Extracellular Ca²+ at 10 mM efficiently blocked Na+ influx and inhibited stomatal opening, which was partially abolished by La³+ (an inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca²+ channel) or catalase (CAT, a H₂O₂ scavenger), respectively. These results suggest that the plasma membrane Ca²+ channels and H₂O₂ possibly mediate extracellular Ca²+-blocked Na+ influx in GCPs. Furthermore, extracellular Ca²+ activated the plasma membrane Ca²+ channels under NaCl stress, which was partially abolished by CAT. These results, taken together, indicate that hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) likely regulates Na+ uptake by activating plasma membrane Ca²+ channels in GCPs. In accordance with this hypothesis, H₂O₂ could mimic extracellular Ca²+ to activate Ca²+ channels and block Na+ influx in guard cells. A single-cell analysis of cytosolic free Ca²+ ([Ca²+](cyt)) using Fluo 3-AM revealed that extracellular Ca²+ induced the accumulation of cytosolic Ca²+ under NaCl stress, but had few effects on the accumulation of cytosolic Ca²+ under non-NaCl conditions. All of these results, together with our previous studies showing that extracellular Ca²+ induced the generation of H₂O₂ in GCPs during NaCl stress, indicate that extracellular Ca²+ alleviates salt stress, likely by activating the H₂O₂-dependent plasma membrane Ca²+ channels, and the increase in cytosolic Ca²+ appears to block Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in Vicia guard cells, leading to stomatal closure and reduction of water loss.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

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