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Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011 May;11(5):641-53. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2011.562495. Epub 2011 Mar 3.

Present and future of influenza prevention in pediatrics.

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  • 1Department of Maternal and Pediatric Sciences, UniversitĂ  degli Studi di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS CĂ  Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda 9, 20122 Milano, Italy.



Pediatric influenza not only leads to significant rates of morbidity and an increased risk of hospitalisation, it can also have a substantial socio-economic impact because children shed larger amounts of viruses over longer periods than adults. This makes adequate prevention desirable, and the best means of reducing the incidence and risks of infection in children is influenza vaccination.


The main aim of this review is to analyse the characteristics of new means of influenza prevention and identify which may be important in pediatrics. An updated overview of influenza vaccines is provided, concentrating on strategies of inducing immunogenicity and facilitating the administration of both old and new vaccines.


The currently available data clearly indicate that influenza in children is much less optimally prevented than other vaccine-preventable diseases. A number of different approaches seem to be promising in adults, but there is an urgent need for new strategies when using old vaccines in children or testing new vaccines in pediatric trials.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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